Geotextile particularly jute geotextiles are recently emerging technologies in geotechnical and bio-engineering fields. Geo textiles are not a single commodity. These are fabricated by both synthetic and natural fiber with different design, shape, size, composition according to functional need. These applications are generally categorized as; soil stabilizer, application at the interface of the formation of soil and the track back to minimize pumping of fine soil into granular materials; to lay beneath asphalt surface to delay crack development; consolidation of soil through filtration and drainage by filter cake formation; application as erosion control; reinforcement of civil construction; moisturization, protection from rain, wind, light and cold etc.
In fact geotextiles are multi functional and location specific in nature. Bioengineering/agro mulching of natural fibrous materials are most effectives due to their biodegradability, echo-compatibility and improvement of soil fertility and texture. In addition to erosion control they also facilitate vegetative growth, de weeding and canopy of the land.
Jute Geotextile – Applications and Uses
Geotextiles are used in wide range of areas. Following are the some important application areas where treated-untreated, blended-nonblended, natural and synthetic, geotextiles are used. They may be woven-nonwoven, knitted-netted, corded, composite and sandwiched etc. But application of geo textiles is location specific so in addition to the characteristics of geotextiles, identification and application of geo-textiles depends on soil type, soil composition, moisture content, liquid limits, plasticityindex, bulkdensity, soil pH, iron/calcium content, clay/silt and sand composition, land sloping & hydraulic action etc. Moreover climatic condition of the application site is also to be considered.
Geo-textile use will sometimes mask slope failures until erosion is too far advanced to effectively and cheaply remediate the slope. When advanced erosion is detected it means costly restoration. In contrast when a hydroseeded area has crust failure, whether from weather, human or animal activity, the damage is visible early and can be cheaply repaired.
Erosion control covers a variety of conditions from high velocity stream flow to heavy wave action, to less severe conditions.; All conditions should be considered before selecting a method of control.
Natural fibre like jute geotextiles degrade to form an organic mulch and help in quick establishment of vegetation. Different fibres will degrade at different rates eg coir geotextiles degrade in 2-3 years while jute degrades in 1-2 years. Coir is therefore useful in situations where vegetation will take longer to establish, and jute is useful in low rainfall areas because it absorbs more moisture.
In many arid and semi-arid areas the action of the wind causes considerable erosion. Geotextiles made from natural fibre such as coir, or jute can be used for wind erosion control, dust control, sand dune formation and stabilization. Jute is particularly useful for dust control because of the hairiness of the fibres.